Romans 1:24-32 is clear, when a society willfully chooses to reject God’s truth in exchange for the lie, as well as reject God’s glory in exchange for the glory of the creature, God promises to hand them over to their sins and the horrible consequences which will inevitably follow. Romans 1:18 assures us that God has clearly revealed himself to all people, both by his creation and his just wrath toward sinners. So in Romans 1:24-32, the Apostle Paul is merely demonstrating precisely how the wrath of God is revealed. One clear demonstration of the wrath of God is God’s choice to hand sinners over to their own lusts, so that they might receive the “due penalty” for their sin (the natural consequences of sin). In other words, sin is its own punishment (not the only/ultimate punishment). Apart from God’s “saving grace” (found only in Christ), all people have embraced their own rebellion by casting off the righteous rule of God and his Law. Therefore, on one level, Romans 1:24-32 applies to each and every individual who has been born. However, on another level, Romans 1:24-32 also applies to collective societies and cultures down through human history. At the Tower of Babel, arrogant sinners defied God and incurred his just judgment. At Sodom and Gomorrah, the people were so corrupt that God rained down fire and consumed their cities. Furthermore, when God told Moses and Joshua to utterly destroy the Canaanites, it was because these wicked and godless people had filled up the full measure of God’s wrath by committing heinous acts of rebellion for over 400 years (Genesis 15:13-16). In short, when a society abandons God, God will abandon them.